World had laid its next step of advancement, ‘Quantum Computing’ or quantum computers, for optimal analysis of problems and situations to derive the best out of the possibilities, in adequately lesser amount of time. It’s been real now, the complex computations and moving the stumbling block by probing the best approach towards it. This blog explains this emerging field in a simple understandable manner.

**What is Quantum Computing?**

Quantum Computing fetches the reliable quick computational methods using quantum mechanics. Computers employed for quantum computing are called **quantum computers**. These computers compute the problem, same as classical way of computing but in ‘qubits’ (analogous to ‘bits’ in classical computers). Quantum Computing is a mere integration of quantum properties Superposition and entanglement. The drive of quantum computing lets feasible complex computational problems like integer factorization and for availing or probing several methods to get a result, while analyzing a problem.

Quantum Computing wave started well back in 1980s, when physicist Paul Benioff proposed a quantum mechanical model of Turing machine (a machine capable of arbitrary computations using symbols).

Qubits, as similar to bits in classical computers are measured in quantum logic gates, which is too analogous to classical logic gates. Qubits can be 1 or 0 in quantum state or in superposition of both the states, explained by superposition principle of quantum mechanics.

**Quantum Circuit Model**

While there exist several models of approaching quantum mechanics, quantum circuit is the most deployed model than the rest.

The model comprises of quantum bits called **‘qubits’, **that is somewhat analogous to bits in classical computation. Bits in classical computation explains the fundamental computing way of computers, a stream of electrical or optical pulses representing 1s or 0s. All stuffs from WhatsApp messages to YouTube holds a long sequence of binary digits, on the back-end. For instance, letter ‘A’ takes the binary code ‘01000001’. Computer & smartphones works by this binary digits.

In quantum computing, on the other hand, qubits are used, which are typically subatomic particles like electrons or photons. As the subatomic particles are mere probability of occurrences, the computing of quantum as in the case, involves all such probabilities into consideration before manipulating over the quantum gates. This computing results several approaches along the way to deliver an output. The superposition and entanglement of quantum science credits a lot for enabling the quantum computing.

**Quantum Properties**

**Superposition**

Superposition refers to a combination of independent states, leading to a new conjoined state. Two musical notes, superimposed over one another can be referred here as an example. Qubits can take combinations of 1 and 0 at the same time, enabling it being in a multiple state simultaneously. The property accrues handful potential outcomes, when several qubits are superpositioned. The final result of a calculation breaks down the quantum state, citing either 0 or 1.

**Entanglement**

Another peculiar feature of quantum that addles many is entanglement. It explains of the pairs of qubits that are “entangled”, meaning two members of that pair exist in a single quantum state. Any manipulation of the value of one member, simultaneously affects other to be the same. This manipulation occurs even if pairs are separated by long distances. Quantum computers harness entangled qubits in a kind of quantum chain. This ante up ability and speed up calculations of solving tedious algorithms.

**Understanding Quantum Computing**

Quantum computing, as involves subatomic particles called qubits, generation of such particles requires a suitable ambience wherein no errors or noises interrupts computing. For this reason, quantum computers need to be preserved from the outside environment in a supercooled fridges and vacuum chambers, that withholds temperate low up to -2720 Celsius. IBM, Google & Rigetti computing effectuates via this method. While, companies like IonQ trap individual atoms in electromagnetic fields on a silicon chip in an ultra-high-vacuum chamber. In both instants, goal is to isolate qubits in quantum state.

These qubits actuate the calculations in a more effectual basis, incorporating superposition & entanglement for quick make-ups of a query.

For example, if quantum algorithm is to be implied on determining a lowest energy state among various molecular bond lengths. For each possible bond length, parts of the energy state are represented on a quantum processor. Then, aspects of the quantum state are measured and related back to an energy in the molecule, for the given electronic configuration. Repeating this process for different inter-atomic spacings eventually leads to the bond length with the lowest energy state.

**Decoherence & Scaling the systems**

Decoherence simply refers to the interaction of qubits with outer environment that makes their quantum ability to decay and distort. Any sort of slight vibration or variation in the temperature, ensues in quantum error or noise, further failing to measure qubits. Eventuating a successful computing wants in quantum computers to be fault-tolerant quantum system. Quantum supremacy is that feature deterring those errors happens less.

Scaling the systems by ‘quantum volume’, clearly depicts out the capability of the quantum computations. Quantum volume relates the decoherences, circuit connectivity and the number of qubits. Developing systems with larger quantum volume will lead to discovering the first instances of applications where quantum computers can offer a computational advantage for solving real problems.

**Applications**

Most promising application of quantum computers is their ability to simulate the input down to the molecular level. Pharmaceutical companies advantage these computers to analyze and compare compounds and produce new drugs. Creation of drugs and vaccines for an unknown disease is quite quickly fetchable in these computers. Quantum technology is most applicable in the cryptography, seeking an algorithm breakdown.

Volkswagen and Daimler processed quantum systems to simulate the chemical composition of EV Batteries, aiming to cater best performance.

Oct 23, 2019 had Google AI & NASA to work out quantum computing by solely dedicating a lab for its research on quantum and artificial intelligence.

**Epilogue**

Present day, where world is thriving for its enhancing features, much more convenient and quicker than ever, lays out in quantum computing for the same. Top Fortune companies like Google, IBM, Amazon, Microsoft and Alibaba started rolling out its research to build a feasible quantum computer for the real time applications. This quantum mechanics could also stretch out its legs onto some unimaginable practices of making light speed travel, time travel and those impeccable characteristics of the molecular world. Who knows? You may be fit for a time travel in future, just within 50 years. Until then & even after then, Innovation continues.

*References:*

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